تاثیر یک جلسه ورزش وامانده ساز قبل و بعد از شش هفته تمرین هوازی و مصرف مکمل اسپیرولینا بر شاخص‌های استرس اکسیداتیو در مردان چاق غیرفعال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی،دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

10.22049/jassp.2019.26544.1214

چکیده

فعالیت‌های ورزشی وامانده‌ساز موجب افزایش تولید رادیکال‌های آزاد فعال و بروز فشار اکسایشی در بدن می‌شوند. استفاده از مکمل‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی ‌یکی از کارآمدترین روش‌ها برای کاهش میزان فشار اکسایشی در بدن ورزشکاران می‌باشد. از این رو تحقیق حاضر به‌منظور بررسی اثر شش هفته تمرین هوازی با مصرف مکمل اسپیرولینا بر شاخص‌های استرس اکسیداتیو در مردان چاق غیرفعال به دنبال یک جلسه فعالیت وامانده ساز انجام شد. 32 مرد چاق غیرفعال به‌صورت تصادفی در چهار گروه همگن (مکمل ورزشی، مکمل شاهد، دارونما ورزشی، دارونما شاهد) قرار گرفتند. مکمل اسپیرولینا به مدت 6 هفته و هر هفته در 5 جلسه تمرینی تجویز شد، نمونه خونی از همه‌ی آزمودنی‌ها در چهار نوبت جهت تعیین شاخص‌های اکسایشی مالون دی آلدهید، سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز، کاتالاز و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی گرفته شد. داده‌های حاصله با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS20 در سطح معنادار 05/.< p بررسی شد. نتایج نشان دادند که تمرین فزاینده‌ی وامانده ساز به‌طور معناداری موجب افزایش میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدهید، سوپراکسیددیسموتاز، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و کاتالاز و مکمل اسپیرولینا سبب کاهش معنادار آنهاو افزایش ظرفیت تام آنتی‌اکسیدانی شد. نتیجه گیری می شود که مکمل اسپیرولینا در مردان چاق غیرفعال می‌تواند از آسیب اکسایشی ناشی از تمرین فزاینده وامانده‌ساز پیشگیری کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of an exhaustive exercise before and after aerobic training along with dietary spirulina supplementation on oxidative stress in inactive obese men

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram Soleymani 1
  • Asghar Tofighi 2
  • Solmaz Babaei Bonab 3
1 MSc in Sport Physiology, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Associate professor of exercise physiology, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Sport Physiology, Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, University of Maragheh, Maragheh , Iran
چکیده [English]

Exhaustive exercise increases the production of active free radicals and outbreak of oxidative stress in the body. Using antioxidant supplementation is one of the most efficient methods for reducing oxidative stress in the Athletes. Therefore, aim of this study was to determine the effect of six weeks of aerobic training accompanied by dietary supplementation of spirulina on oxidative stress index in obese inactive men followed by one session of exhaustive exercise. 32 inactive obese men were randomly divided into four homogeneous groups including on supplemented exercise, supplemented control, placebo, placebo exercise, supplemented by spirulina for six weeks and experienced five training sessions per week. Blood sample were taken at four times to determine the SOD, GPX, CAT activity, MDA level and also total antioxidant capacity. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software at a significant level of pThe results showed that exhausting exercise significantly increased MDA level and SOD, GPX and CAT activities, while spirulina supplementation restored them and also increased total antioxidant capacity. It can be concluded that spirulina supplementation in inactive obese men can prevent oxidative damage caused by an exhaustive exercise.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Oxidative Stress
  • Obese Men
  • Spirulina
  • Acute Exercise
  • Training

1.        Acott C. Oxygen toxicity. A brief history of oxygen in diving. J SPUMS. 1999; 29(3): 38-46.

2.        Tripathi P, and Pandey S. L-arginine attenuates oxidative stress condition during cardiomyopathy. IJBB. 2013;50: 99-104.

3.         Zhang SH, Wang SY, and Yao SL. Antioxidative effect of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. Acta Pharm Sin. 2004;25: 334–40.

4.        De Souza TP-Jr, De Oliveira PR and Pereira B. Effect of intense physical exercise on the urinary chemiluminescence and plasmatic malondialdehyde. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2004; 11: 97–101.

5.        BH, and JM g.1986. Biochembiophys. JMC Arch.246:501–514.

6.        Guilland, Peneranda T, Gallet C, Boggio V, Fuchs F, and Klepping J. Vitamin status of young athletes including the effects of supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21: 441–449.

7.        Sachdev S, and Davies KJ. Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2008; 44(2): 215–223.

8.        Deaton CM, and Marlin DJ.2003. Exercise-associated oxidative stress. Clinical techniques in Equine Practice. 2008;2: 278-291

9.        Lamina S, Ezema CI, Theresa AI, Anthonia EU. Effects of free radicals and antioxidants on exercise performance. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 83-91.

10.     Radak Z, Chung HY, Koltai E, Taylor AW, Goto S. Exercise, oxidative stress and hormesis. Ageing Res Rev. 2008; 7(1): 34-42.

11.     Atashak S, SHarafi h, Azarbayjani M, Goli A, Batorak K. Karimi V. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of plasma following a resistance exercise session in young athletes. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci . 2013; 17: 51-59.(In persian).

12.     Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114(12): 1752-1761.

13.     Puyfoulhoux G, Rouanet JM, Besançon P, Baroux B, Baccou JC, Caporiccio B. Iron availability from iron-fortified spirulina by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(3):1625-1609.

14.     Sandhu J.S, DheeraB, SHweta, S. Efficacy of Spirulina Supplementation on Isometric Strength and Isometric Endurance of Quadriceps in Trained and Untrained Individuals-a Comparative Study. IJMBS. 2010; 2(2):79-86.

15.     Jafari A. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise with Different Intensities on Mutational Mutations of Skull Muscles in Rats. PhD thesis, University of Tehran. 2012;49: 19-25. (In persian).

16.     Forsythe L. K, Julie M W, Wallace M, Barbara  E. Obesity and inflammation: the effects of weight loss. Nutrit Res Rev. 2008;21:117–13.

17.     Ozata M, Mergen M, Oktenli C, Aydin A, Sanisoglu S Y, Bolu E. Increased oxidative stress and hypozincemia in male obesity. Clin Bioch. 2002;35: 627–631.

18.     Vincent H K, Powers S K, Stewart D J, Shanely R A, Demirel H, Nalto, H. Obesity is associated with increased myocardial oxidative stress. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999; 23: 67-74.

19.     Dobrian A. D, Davies M J, Prewitt R. L, Lauterio T J. Development of hypertension in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Hypertension. 2000;35: 1009-1015.

20.     Nojima H., Watanabe H., Yamane K, Kitahara Y, Sekikawa K. , Yamamoto, H. Effect of aerobic exercise training on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2008; 57: 170–176.

21.     Calderon K. S, Yucha C. B,Schaffer S. D. Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Intervention Recommendations to Decrease Adolescent Obesity. J Pediatr Nurs. 2005; 20: 2-13.

22.     Thirumalai T, TherasaS. V, Elumalai E. K, David, E. Intense and exhaustive exercise induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2011; 1(1): 63-66.

23.     Gökbel H, Belviran M. Acute Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Changes. Eur J Gen Med. 2006;3: 126- 131.

24.     McBride J. M, Kraemer W. J, McBride T. T. , Sebastianelli W. Effect of resistance exercise on free radical production. Med Sci Sports Exer. 1998;30: 67–72.

25.     Milasius K., Malickaite R, Dadeliene R. Effect of Spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen. Biology of Sport. 2009;26(2): 157-164.

26.     Varmaziyar M. Azarbayjani M. Effect of saffron on the activity of oxidative enzymes during an outsourcing session in active men. Phylum of medicinal plants. 2014; 2 (50): 54-63.[In Persian].

27.     Dehghan P. Aliasgarzaze A. Asghari jafarabadi M. Pourghasemi B. The effect of supplementation of inulin on total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in type 2 diabetic patients. 2014.theses(In Persian).

28.     Rahimi F.Siyahkohiyan M. Rouhi B. Farhadi H. Shahravan N. Hasanzadeh Z. Effect of Pomegranate Supplementation and Aerobic Exercise on Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Overweight Men. Sci J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2015;21(3): 332-340.[In Persian].

29.     Dehkhoda M. Gaeini A. Rajabi H. Rkfvd A. Sarafnejad A. The effect of an aerobic period with the use of spirulina on the maximal consumption of oxine and the performance of some of the indicators of the men's immune system after physical exhaustion. Journal of Motion and Exercise Science. 2007; 9: 46-29. (In Persian).

30.     Moradi Z. Shemshaki A. Basami M. The Effect of Saffron Supplementation on Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Enzymatic Levels in a Severe Anaerobic Exercise in Young Women. Sports Physiology Journals. 2013; 14: 130-119.(In Persian).

31.     Lin WT, Yang SC, Tsai SC, Huang CC, and Lee NY. L-Arginine attenuates xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in hearts of rats during exhaustive exercise. Br J Nutr. 2006;95: 67–75.

32.     Marzatico F, Pansarasa O, Bertorelli L, Somenzini L, and Della Valle G. Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. J SPORT MED PHYS FIT. 1997;37: 235–239. 

33.     MaoT.K, Van De Water. Effect of spirulina on the secretion of cytokines from peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells. J Med Food. 2000;3: 135-140.

34.     Miranda M.S, Cintra R.G. Antioxident activity of the micoalga spirulina maxima. Braz. Med.Bio.Res. 1998; 31: 1075-1079.

35.     Tomohiro H, et-al. Activation of the human innate immune system by spirulina. Int Immunopharmacology. 2002;2: 423-434.

36.     Ahma B. The potential application of spirulina (Arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. J Am Nutraceutical Association. 2002; 5(2) : 32-39

37.     Robert Henrikson Spirulina: Health discoveries from the source of life.1998;book.

1.        Acott C. Oxygen toxicity. A brief history of oxygen in diving. J SPUMS. 1999; 29(3): 38-46.

2.        Tripathi P, and Pandey S. L-arginine attenuates oxidative stress condition during cardiomyopathy. IJBB. 2013;50: 99-104.

3.         Zhang SH, Wang SY, and Yao SL. Antioxidative effect of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. Acta Pharm Sin. 2004;25: 334–40.

4.        De Souza TP-Jr, De Oliveira PR and Pereira B. Effect of intense physical exercise on the urinary chemiluminescence and plasmatic malondialdehyde. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2004; 11: 97–101.

5.        BH, and JM g.1986. Biochembiophys. JMC Arch.246:501–514.

6.        Guilland, Peneranda T, Gallet C, Boggio V, Fuchs F, and Klepping J. Vitamin status of young athletes including the effects of supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21: 441–449.

7.        Sachdev S, and Davies KJ. Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2008; 44(2): 215–223.

8.        Deaton CM, and Marlin DJ.2003. Exercise-associated oxidative stress. Clinical techniques in Equine Practice. 2008;2: 278-291

9.        Lamina S, Ezema CI, Theresa AI, Anthonia EU. Effects of free radicals and antioxidants on exercise performance. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 83-91.

10.     Radak Z, Chung HY, Koltai E, Taylor AW, Goto S. Exercise, oxidative stress and hormesis. Ageing Res Rev. 2008; 7(1): 34-42.

11.     Atashak S, SHarafi h, Azarbayjani M, Goli A, Batorak K. Karimi V. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of plasma following a resistance exercise session in young athletes. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci . 2013; 17: 51-59.(In persian).

12.     Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114(12): 1752-1761.

13.     Puyfoulhoux G, Rouanet JM, Besançon P, Baroux B, Baccou JC, Caporiccio B. Iron availability from iron-fortified spirulina by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(3):1625-1609.

14.     Sandhu J.S, DheeraB, SHweta, S. Efficacy of Spirulina Supplementation on Isometric Strength and Isometric Endurance of Quadriceps in Trained and Untrained Individuals-a Comparative Study. IJMBS. 2010; 2(2):79-86.

15.     Jafari A. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise with Different Intensities on Mutational Mutations of Skull Muscles in Rats. PhD thesis, University of Tehran. 2012;49: 19-25. (In persian).

16.     Forsythe L. K, Julie M W, Wallace M, Barbara  E. Obesity and inflammation: the effects of weight loss. Nutrit Res Rev. 2008;21:117–13.

17.     Ozata M, Mergen M, Oktenli C, Aydin A, Sanisoglu S Y, Bolu E. Increased oxidative stress and hypozincemia in male obesity. Clin Bioch. 2002;35: 627–631.

18.     Vincent H K, Powers S K, Stewart D J, Shanely R A, Demirel H, Nalto, H. Obesity is associated with increased myocardial oxidative stress. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999; 23: 67-74.

19.     Dobrian A. D, Davies M J, Prewitt R. L, Lauterio T J. Development of hypertension in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Hypertension. 2000;35: 1009-1015.

20.     Nojima H., Watanabe H., Yamane K, Kitahara Y, Sekikawa K. , Yamamoto, H. Effect of aerobic exercise training on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2008; 57: 170–176.

21.     Calderon K. S, Yucha C. B,Schaffer S. D. Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Intervention Recommendations to Decrease Adolescent Obesity. J Pediatr Nurs. 2005; 20: 2-13.

22.     Thirumalai T, TherasaS. V, Elumalai E. K, David, E. Intense and exhaustive exercise induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2011; 1(1): 63-66.

23.     Gökbel H, Belviran M. Acute Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Changes. Eur J Gen Med. 2006;3: 126- 131.

24.     McBride J. M, Kraemer W. J, McBride T. T. , Sebastianelli W. Effect of resistance exercise on free radical production. Med Sci Sports Exer. 1998;30: 67–72.

25.     Milasius K., Malickaite R, Dadeliene R. Effect of Spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen. Biology of Sport. 2009;26(2): 157-164.

26.     Varmaziyar M. Azarbayjani M. Effect of saffron on the activity of oxidative enzymes during an outsourcing session in active men. Phylum of medicinal plants. 2014; 2 (50): 54-63.[In Persian].

27.     Dehghan P. Aliasgarzaze A. Asghari jafarabadi M. Pourghasemi B. The effect of supplementation of inulin on total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in type 2 diabetic patients. 2014.theses(In Persian).

28.     Rahimi F.Siyahkohiyan M. Rouhi B. Farhadi H. Shahravan N. Hasanzadeh Z. Effect of Pomegranate Supplementation and Aerobic Exercise on Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Overweight Men. Sci J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2015;21(3): 332-340.[In Persian].

29.     Dehkhoda M. Gaeini A. Rajabi H. Rkfvd A. Sarafnejad A. The effect of an aerobic period with the use of spirulina on the maximal consumption of oxine and the performance of some of the indicators of the men's immune system after physical exhaustion. Journal of Motion and Exercise Science. 2007; 9: 46-29. (In Persian).

30.     Moradi Z. Shemshaki A. Basami M. The Effect of Saffron Supplementation on Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Enzymatic Levels in a Severe Anaerobic Exercise in Young Women. Sports Physiology Journals. 2013; 14: 130-119.(In Persian).

31.     Lin WT, Yang SC, Tsai SC, Huang CC, and Lee NY. L-Arginine attenuates xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in hearts of rats during exhaustive exercise. Br J Nutr. 2006;95: 67–75.

32.     Marzatico F, Pansarasa O, Bertorelli L, Somenzini L, and Della Valle G. Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. J SPORT MED PHYS FIT. 1997;37: 235–239. 

33.     MaoT.K, Van De Water. Effect of spirulina on the secretion of cytokines from peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells. J Med Food. 2000;3: 135-140.

34.     Miranda M.S, Cintra R.G. Antioxident activity of the micoalga spirulina maxima. Braz. Med.Bio.Res. 1998; 31: 1075-1079.

35.     Tomohiro H, et-al. Activation of the human innate immune system by spirulina. Int Immunopharmacology. 2002;2: 423-434.

36.     Ahma B. The potential application of spirulina (Arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. J Am Nutraceutical Association. 2002; 5(2) : 32-39

37.     Robert Henrikson Spirulina: Health discoveries from the source of life.1998;book.