تاثیر دو نوع تمرین تناوبی با شدت بالا و تداومی با شدت متوسط بر سطوح TNF-α و IL-10 سرمی در رت های نر چاق

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی ،دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

3 دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

4 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد هشتگرد، هشتگرد، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی آثار تمرینات ورزشی تناوبی با شدت بالا (HIIT) و تداومی با شدت متوسط (MICT) بر فاکتورهای التهابی (TNF-α و IL-10 ) در رت‌های نر چاق بود.روش شناسی:  40 سر رت نر در دو گروه به مدت 10 هفته تحت رژیم غذایی پرچرب (32 سر) و رژیم غذایی استاندارد (8 سر) قرار گرفتند. پس از القاء چاقی، 8 سر رت از گروه رژیم غذایی پرچرب (O) و 8 سر رت گروه رژیم غذایی استاندارد (C) قربانی شده و سایر رت‌های چاق به‌ طور تصادفی به 3 گروه شاهد چاق (OC)، تمرین تداومی با شدت متوسط (MICT) و تمرین تناوبی با شدت بالا (HIIT) تقسیم شدند. پروتکلHIIT شامل اجرای 10 مرحله فعالیت 4 دقیقه‌ای با شدت معادل 85 تا 90 درصد VO2max و با دوره‌های استراحتی فعال 2 دقیقه‌ای و پروتکل MICT با شدت معادل 65 تا 70 درصد  VO2maxبا مسافت طی شده همسان با پروتکل HIIT به مدت 12 هفته و 5 جلسه در هر هفته اجرا شدند. نمونه­های سرمی برای اندازه‌گیری سطوح سرمی TNF-α و IL-10 به روش الایزا جمع‌آوری شد. یافته‌ها: در هر دو گروه HIIT  و MICT نسبت به گروه OC سطوح سرمی  TNF-α بطور معنی داری کاهش و سطوح سرمی IL-10 به صورت معنی‌داری افزایش یافت (05/0P≤). اما در مقایسه بین گروه‌های HIIT  و MICT  در سطوح سرمی TNF-α و IL-10، تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد. نتیجه‌گیری:به نظر می‌رسد که هر دو پروتکل تمرینی HIIT و MICT منجر به بهبود التهاب مزمن به واسطه کاهش TNF-α وافزایش IL-10 می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Two Types of High Intensity and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training on Serum Levels of TNF-a and IL-10 in Obese Male Rats

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Akbari 1
  • Hamid Mohebbi 2
  • Mousa Khalafi 3
  • Kamilia Moghaddami 4
1 PhD Student in Exercise Physiology, Department of Sports Physiology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
2 Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Sports Physiology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
3 PhD in Exercise Physiology, Department of Sports Physiology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Physical Education, Islamic Of Azad University, Hashtgerd , Hashtgerd, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Aim:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-10) in obese male rats.  Methods: Forty male rats were divided into two groups: high-fat diet (n=32) and standard diet (n=8), for 10 weeks. After inducing obesity, eight rats from the high-fat diet group (O) and eight from the standard dietary group (C) were sacrificed, and the other obese rats were randomly divided into three groups: obesity control (OC), moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT). The HIIT protocol, including 10 bouts of 4-minute activity with equivalent intensity of 85-90% vo2max and 2 minute active rest periods, and the MICT protocol with equivalent intensity of 65-70% VO2max, with covered distance matched to that of the HIIT protocol, were performed for 12 weeks and 5 sessions per week. Serum samples were collected to measure serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 by ELISA.  Results: In both HIIT and MICT groups, serum levels of TNF-α were significantly decreased and serum levels of IL-10 were significantly increased compared to OC group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: But there was no significant difference between the HIIT and MICT groups in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10. It seems that both HIIT and MICT training protocols improve chronic inflammation by decreasing TNF-α and increasing IL-10.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • High Intensity interval training
  • moderate intensity continuous training
  • Alpha Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Interleukin 10
  • Obesity
  1. Prenzler NK, Macke C, Horn R, Brabant G, Pabst R, Richter M, et al. Obesity influences the food consumption and cytokine pattern in ghrelin-treated endotoxemic rats. Life sciences. 2007;81(1):80-7.
  2. Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2011;11(2):85-97.
  3. Donath MY, Shoelson SE. Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2011;11(2):98-107.
  4. Hussain A HM, Claussen B, Asghar S. Type 2 Diabetes and obesity: a review. J Diabetol. 2010;5:1-7.
  5. Caspar-Bauguil S, Cousin B, Galinier A, Segafredo C, Nibbelink M, Andre M, et al. Adipose tissues as an ancestral immune organ: Site‐specific change in obesity. FEBS letters. 2005;579(17):3487-92.
  6. Lolmède K, Duffaut C, Zakaroff-Girard A, Bouloumié A. Immune cells in adipose tissue: key players in metabolic disorders. Diabetes & metabolism. 2011;37(4):283-90.
  7. Sun K, Kusminski CM, Scherer PE. Adipose tissue remodeling and obesity. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2011;121(6):2094-101.
  8. Lumeng CN, Bodzin JL, Saltiel AR. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2007;117(1):175.
  9. Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A. Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(6):2169-80.
  10. Chen L, Chen R, Wang H, Liang F. Mechanisms linking inflammation to insulin resistance. International journal of endocrinology. 2015;2015.
  11. Wunderlich CM, Hövelmeyer N, Wunderlich FT. Mechanisms of chronic JAK-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling in obesity. Jak-stat. 2013;2(2):e23878.
  12. Vissers D, Hens W, Taeymans J, Baeyens J-P, Poortmans J, Van Gaal L. The effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue in overweight adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56415.
  13. Pattyn N, Cornelissen VA, Eshghi SRT, Vanhees L. The effect of exercise on the cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. Sports medicine. 2013;43(2):121-33.
  14. Pescatello LS, Blanchard BE, Van Heest JL, Maresh CM, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD. The metabolic syndrome and the immediate antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise: a randomized control design. BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2008;8(1):12.
  15. Stefanyk LE, Dyck DJ. The interaction between adipokines, diet and exercise on muscle insulin sensitivity. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2010;13(3):255-9.
  16. Gibala MJ, Little JP, MacDonald MJ, Hawley JA. Physiological adaptations to low‐volume, high‐intensity interval training in health and disease. The Journal of physiology. 2012;590(5):1077-84.
  17. Gibala MJ. Physiological adaptations to low-volume high-intensity interval training. Sports Science Exchange. 2015;28(139):1-6.
  18. Robinson E, Durrer C, Simtchouk S, Jung ME, Bourne JE, Voth E, et al. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Journal of applied physiology. 2015;119(5):508-16.
  19. Durrer C, Francois M, Neudorf H, Little JP. Acute high-intensity interval exercise reduces human monocyte Toll-like receptor 2 expression in type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2017;312(4):R529-R38.
  20. Fahlman MM, Engels H-J. Mucosal IgA and URTI in American college football players: a year longitudinal study. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2005;37(3):374-80.
  21. Zwetsloot KA, John CS, Lawrence MM, Battista RA, Shanely RA. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men. Journal of inflammation research. 2014;7:9.
  22. Barry JC, Simtchouk S, Durrer C, Jung ME, Mui AL, Little JP. Short-term exercise training reduces anti-inflammatory action of interleukin-10 in adults with obesity. Cytokine. 2018;111:460-9.
  23. Kim K. Effects of Endurance Exercise Training on Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Gene Expression in Elderly Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity. Asian J Kinesiol. 2019;21(1):37-45.
  24. Suarez-Alvarez K, Solis-Lozano L, Leon-Cabrera S, Gonzalez-Chavez A, Gomez-Hernandez G, Quinones-Alvarez M, et al. Serum IL-12 is increased in Mexican obese subjects and associated with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. Mediators of inflammation. 2013;2013.
  25. Manigrasso M, Ferroni P, Santilli F, Taraborelli T, Guagnano M, Michetti N, et al. Association between circulating adiponectin and interleukin-10 levels in android obesity: effects of weight loss. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2005;90(10):5876-9.
  26. Esposito K, Pontillo A, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, Marfella R, Nicoletti G, et al. Association of low interleukin-10 levels with the metabolic syndrome in obese women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2003;88(3):1055-8.
  27. Jung SH, Park HS, Kim K-S, Choi WH, Ahn CW, Kim BT, et al. Effect of weight loss on some serum cytokines in human obesity: increase in IL-10 after weight loss. The Journal of nutritional biochemist ry. 2008;19(6):371-5.
  28. Gao M, Zhang C, Ma Y, Bu L, Yan L, Liu D. Hydrodynamic delivery of mIL10 gene protects mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Molecular Therapy. 2013;21(10):1852-61.
  29. Lumeng CN, Bodzin JL, Saltiel AR. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2007;117(1):175-84.
  30. Tateya S, Kim F, Tamori Y. Recent advances in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013; 4: 93.
  31. Schmidt FM, Weschenfelder J, Sander C, Minkwitz J, Thormann J, Chittka T, et al. Inflammatory cytokines in general and central obesity and modulating effects of physical activity. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0121971.
  32. Hadiono M, Kushartanti BW, editors. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT) Against TNF-α and IL-6 levels In Rats. 2nd International Conference on Sports Sciences and Health 2018 (2nd ICSSH 2018); 2019: Atlantis Press.
  33. Pervaiz N, Hoffman-Goetz L. Immune cell inflammatory cytokine responses differ between central and systemic compartments in response to acute exercise in mice. Exercise immunology review. 2012;18.
  34. Duzova H, Gullu E, Cicek G, Koksal BK, Kayhan B, Gullu A, et al. The effect of exercise induced weight-loss on myokines and adipokines in overweight sedentary females: steps-aerobics vs. jogging-walking exercises. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 2018;58(3):295.
  35. Gerosa-Neto J, Antunes BM, Campos EZ, Rodrigues J, Ferrari GD, Neto JCR, et al. Impact of long-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training on subclinical inflammation in overweight/obese adults. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2016;12(6):575.
  36. Martin-Cordero L, García JJ, Hinchado MD, Bote E, Manso R, Ortega E. Habitual physical exercise improves macrophage IL-6 and TNF-α deregulated release in the obese zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2011;18(2):123-30.
  37. Steckling F, Farinha J, Santos D, Bresciani G, Mortari J, Stefanello S, et al. High intensity interval training reduces the levels of serum inflammatory cytokine on women with metabolic syndrome. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes. 2016;124(10):597-601.
  38. Mokhtarzade M, Ranjbar R, Majdinasab N, Patel D, Shamsi MM. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life. Endocrine. 2017;57(2):262-71.
  39. Steckling FM, Farinha JB, Figueiredo FDC, Santos DLD, Bresciani G, Kretzmann NA, et al. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. 2019;125(1):85-91.
  40. Leggate M, Carter WG, Evans MJ, Vennard RA, Sribala-Sundaram S, Nimmo MA. Determination of inflammatory and prominent proteomic changes in plasma and adipose tissue after high-intensity intermittent training in overweight and obese males. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012;112(8):1353-60.
  41. Kadoglou NP, Iliadis F, Angelopoulou N, Perrea D, Ampatzidis G, Liapis CD, et al. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. 2007;14(6):837-43.
  42. Jung SH, Park HS, Kim KS, Choi WH, Ahn CW, Kim BT, et al. Effect of weight loss on some serum cytokines in human obesity: increase in IL-10 after weight loss. J Nutr Biochem. 2008;19(6):371-5.
  43. Song MJ, Kim KH, Yoon JM, Kim JB. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 is associated with insulin resistance in adipocytes. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2006;346(3):739-45.
  44. Shi H, Kokoeva MV, Inouye K, Tzameli I, Yin H, Flier JS. TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid–induced insulin resistance. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2006;116(11):3015-25.
  45. Jin X, Qin Q, Tu L, Qu J. Glucocorticoids inhibit the innate immune system of human corneal fibroblast through their suppression of toll-like receptors. Molecular vision. 2009;15:2435.
  46. Oliveira AG, Araujo TG, Carvalho BM, Guadagnini D, Rocha GZ, Bagarolli RA, et al. Acute exercise induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization in diet-induced obese rats. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2013;21(12):2545-56.