تاثیر تمرین مقاومتی غیر خطی همراه با مصرف مکمل اسپیرولینا بر لپتین و گرلین سرم زنان چاق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی لامرد، لامرد - ایران.

2 استادیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد لار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لار، ایران

3 استادیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده فنی و حرفه ای قائم شهر، قائمشهر، ایران.

4 کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، واحد لامرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لامرد، ایران.

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تاثیر تمرین مقاومتی غیر خطی همراه با مصرف مکمل اسپیرولینا بر سطوح لپتین و گرلین زنان چاق بود. 40 زن چاق با شاخص توده بدنی (BMI) 30 و بالاتر به طور تصادفی در چهار گروه تمرین مقاومتی غیر خطی، مکمل اسپیرولینا، تمرین مقاومتی غیر خطی +مکمل اسپیرولینا و دارونما (هر گروه 10 نفر) قرار گرفتند. مداخلات به مدت 8 هفته انجام شد. 24 ساعت قبل و 48 ساعت بعد از پایان مداخلات، از هر چهار گروه در وضعیت 12 ساعت ناشتایی نمونه خونی گرفته شد و سطوح سرمی لپتین و گرلین اندازه گیری شد. برنامۀ تمرین مقاومتی غیرخطی شامل اجرای تمرین وزنه در شدتهای مختلف و با تأکید بر استقامت عضلانی و با یک الگوی زمان بندی منعطف بود. افراد گروه مکمل، روزانه 2 عدد کپسول اسپیرولینا 500 میلی گرمی مصرف کردند. قبل و بعد از مداخله، نمونه خونی گرفته شد. تغییر معناداری در سطوح گرلین مشاهده نشد (P>0.05)، سطوح لپتین در دو گروه تمرین+اسپیرولینا و تمرین در مقایسه با دو گروه دیگر به طور معنادار کاهش یافت (P<0.05). بین تغییرات متغیرهای دو گروه تمرین مقاومتی غیر خطی + اسپیرولینا و تمرین مقاومتی غیر خطی و نیز بین تغییرات متغیرهای دو گروه اسپیرولینا و دارونما تفاوت معنادار نبود (P>0.05). احتمالا هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی غیرخطی منجر به بهبود متابولیسم چربی در جهت پیشگیری بیماریهای ناشی از اضافه وزن و چاقی نظیر بیماریهای قلبی و دیابت در زنان چاق میشود. در مورد مصرف مکمل اسپیرولینا اکنون نمیتوان پیشنهاد مشخصی ارائه داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Nonlinear Resistance Training with Supplementation of Spirulina on serum leptin and Ghrelin in obese women

نویسندگان [English]

  • hadi ghaedi 1
  • sirous farsi 2
  • amir taghipour asrami 3
  • rahele kaka 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Humanities, Lamerd Islamic Azad University, Lamerd - Iran.
2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, larestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, larestan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ghaemshahr Technical and Vocational School, Ghaemshahr, Iran.
4 MSc student in exercise physiology, Lamerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lamerd, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nonlinear resistance training along with supplementation of spirulina on serum leptin and Ghrelin in obese women. A sample of 40 healthy obese women with body mass index (BMI) of 30 and above were selected through stratified sampling method. They were randomly assigned to four groups of nonlinear resistance training, spirulina supplement, nonlinear resistance training + spirulina supplementation and Placebo. Interventions were done for 8 weeks. 24 hours before and 48 hours after the end of the interventions, blood samples were taken from groups in a 12-hour fasting state. For each sample, leptin and ghrelin serum levels were measured . The nonlinear resistance training program included exercising weight training at varying intensity, with emphasis on muscular endurance. Supplements and placebo daily consumed 2 capsules of 500 mg of spirulina or starch. In order to compare and evaluate in two blood sampling times, the inter-interstitial analysis of variance analysis was used in a 4 × 2 test. There was no significant change in the level of Ghrelin (P>0.05). Leptin levels decreased significantly in the two groups nonlinear resistance training + spirulina supplementation and nonlinear resistance compared to the other two groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the variables of the two nonlinear resistance training + spirulina supplementation and nonlinear resistance training groups and between the variables of the two groups of spirulina and placebo(P>0.05). Probably eight weeks of nonlinear resistance training will lead to improved fat metabolism in overweight

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nonlinear resistance training
  • Spirulina
  • Leptin
  • Ghrelin
  • obese women
.

1.        Heo MG, Choung SY. Anti-obesity effects of Spirulina maxima in high fat diet induced obese rats via the activation of AMPK pathway and SIRT1. Food & function. 2018; 9(9):4906-15.

2.        Artinian NT, Fletcher GF, Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton P, Van Horn L, Lichtenstein AH, et al. Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010; 122(4): 406-41.

3.        Lean ME, Malkova D. Altered gut and adipose tissue hormones in overweight and obese individuals: cause or consequence. International Journal of Obesity. 2016 Apr; 40(4):622.

4.        Kojima, M. and Kangawa, K. (2005): ghrelin. Structure and function, Physiol Rev: 85, 495- 522.

5.        Kojima, M. Hosoda, H. Date, Y. Nakazato, M. Matsuo, H. and Kangawa, K. (1999). Ghrelin is a growthhormone- releasing acylated peptide from stomach, Nature: 402(6762), 656– 660.

6.        Soares, JB. Leite-Moreira, AF. (2008). Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin: three pieces of the same puzzle, Peptides: 29(7), 1255- 70.

7.        Fujimiya, M. Asakawa, A. Fujino, K. Chen, C. Inui, A. (2006). Acylated ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin exert different effects on the gastrointestinal motility in conscious rats, International Congress Series: 1287, 361-367.

8.        Broom, DR. Stensel, DJ. Bishop, NC. Burns, SF. and Miyashita, M. (2007). Exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin in humans, J Appl Physiol: 102, 2165-71.

9.        Gil-Campos, M. Aguilera, CM. Canete, R. and Gil, A. (2006). A Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis, Br J Nutr: 96(2), 201–226.

10.     Yoshihara, F. Kojima, M. Hosoda, H. Nakazato, M. and Kangawa, K. (2002). Ghrelin: a novel peptide for growth hormone release and feeding regulation, Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: 5(4), 391- 5.

11.     Dall, R. Kanaley, J. Hansen, TK. Møller, N. Christiansen, JS. Hosoda, H. Kangawa, K. And Jorgensen, JO. (2002). Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise in healthy subjects and in growth hormone-deficient patients, Eur J Endocrinol: 147(1), 65–70.

12.     Ghanbari-Niaki A. (2006). Ghrelin and glucoregulatory hormone responses to a single circuit resistance exercise in male college students, Clin Biochem: 39(10), 966–70.

  1. Hansen, TK. Dall, R. Hosoda, H. Kojima, M. Kangawa, K. Christiansen, JS. and Jorgensen, JO. (2002): Weight loss increases circulating levels of ghrelin in human obesity, Clin Endocrinol: 56(2), 203- 206.
  2. Leidy, HJ. Gardner, JK. Frye, BR. Snook, ML. Schuchert, MK. Richard, EL. And Williams, NI. (2004). Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise programin normal-weight young women, J Clin Endocrinol Metab: 89(6), 2659- 64.
 

  1. Foster – Schubert, KE. McTiernan, A. Frayo, RS. Schwartz, RS. Rajan, KB. Yasui, Y. Tworoger, SS. and Cummings, DE. (2005). Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one – year exercise program, J clin Endocrinol Metab: 90, 820–825.
  2. Akieda-Asai S, Poleni PE, Date Y. Coinjection of CCK and leptin reduces food intake via increased CART/TRH and reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the hypothalamus. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014 Apr 8; 306(11):E1284-91.
  3. Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet. 1994 ; 344:1383Y1389
  4. Vatansever-Ozen S, Tiryaki-Sonmez G, Bugdayci G, Ozen G. The effects of exercise on food intake and hunger: relationship with acylated ghrelin and leptin. J Sports Sci Med 2011; 10: 283–291.
  5. Martins C, Kulseng B, Rehfeld JF, King NA, Blundell JE. Effect of chronic exercise on appetite control in overweight and obese individuals. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013; 45: 805–812.
  6. Panahi Y, Pishgoo B, Jalalian HR, Mohammadi E, Taghipour HR, Sahebkar A, et al. Investigation of the effects of Chlorella vulgaris as an adjunctive therapy for dyslipidemia: Results of a randomized openlabel clinical trial. Nutrition& Dietetics 2012; 69(1): 13-19.
  7. Volpe SL, Kobusingye H, Bailur S, Stanek E. (2008). Effect of diet and exercise on body composition, energy intake and leptin levels in overweight women and men. J Am Coll Nutr. 27(2); PP: 195-208.
  8. Fatouros IG, Tournis S, Leontsini D, et al. (2005). Leptin and adiponectin responses in overweight inactive elderly following resistance training and detraining are intensity related. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90 (11); PP: 5970-7.
  9. Plinta R, Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, Drosdzol-Cop A, Chudek J, Skrzypulec-Plinta V (2011). The effect of three-month pre-season preparatory period and short-term exercise on plasma leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and ghrelin levels in young female handball and basketball players. J of Endo Invest. 35; PP: 595-601.
  10. Janghorbani M, Amini M, Willett WC, Gouya MM, Delavari A, Alikhani S, & Mahdavi A. (2007). First nationwide survey of prevalence of overweight, underweight, and abdominal obesity in Iranian adults. Obesity. 15(11); PP: 2797-808.
  11.  Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ. Optimizing Strength Training: Designing Nonlinear Periodization Workouts. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007.
  12.  Fleck SJ. Non-linear periodization for general fitness and athletes. J Hum Kinet 2011; 29A:41-5.
  13. Ovando CA, Carvalho JC, Vinícius de Melo Pereira G, Jacques P, Soccol VT, Soccol CR. Functional properties and health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from Spirulina: A review. Food reviews international. 2018 Jan 2;34(1):34-51.
  14. Benjamin K, Carson BG, Carson RG. The consequences of resistance training for movement control in older
    adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 ; 59 : 730 – 754.
  15. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:37-42.

30.     احمدیان، طاهره؛ توفیقی، اصغر. اثرششهفتهتمریناتایروبیکبامصرفمکملاسپیرولینابرعملکرد هوازیدر دخترانغیرورزشکار. ورزش و علوم زیست حرکتی، سال هشتم، شماره 1، پیاپی 15، بهار و تابستان 1395، ص ص: 43-37.

31.     Nikseresht M, Sadeghifard N, Agha-Alinejad H, Ebrahim K. Inflammatory markers and adipocytokine responses to exercise training and detraining in men who are obese. J Strength Cond Res 2014;28(12):3399-410.

32.     Martins C, Morgan LM, Bloom SR, & Robertson MD. (2007). Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite. J of End. 193(2); PP: 251-58.

33.     Kishali NF. Serum leptin level in healthy sedentary young men after a short-term exercise. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011; 5(4): 522-526.

34.     Lowndes J, Zoeller F, Caplan JD, Kyriazis GA, Moynan M, Seip Rl, et al. Leptin responses to long-term cardiorespiratory exercise training without concomitant weight loss: a prospective study. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2008; 48: 391-397.

35.     Jones T, Basilio JL, Brophy PM, McCammon MR, Hickner RC. Long-term exercise training in overweight adolescents improves plasma peptide YY and resistin. Obesity 2009; 17: 1189–1195.

36.     Jurimae J, Maestu J, Jurimae T. Leptin as a marker of training stress in highly trained male rowers? Eur J Appl Physiol 2003; 90:533-8.

37.     Shahidi F, Taghi Khani M, Aminian T, Kurdi M, Saghiri R, Arjomand M. [Long-term effects of aerobic exercise and increased concentration of selected hormones and leptin levels in women with excess weight] Sports science research Journal 1387, No. 21(Persian).

38.     Ferdosi M, Asad Mo. [The effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent trainings on plasma leptin levels of non-athlete males] Procedia - Social an Behavioral Sciences Journal 46 (2012) 311 – 315.

39.     Saremi, A, Shevandi N, Bayat Ne. [The effect of exercise on serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and sleep quality in overweight and obese men] Arak University of Medical Sciences Jounal 1391, Year 15, No. 1(Persian).

40.     Abuzenadah AM, El-Kader SMA, Aldahr MS. Impact of mild versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise training on leptin and selected innate immune system response in obese asthmatic patients. Mid East J Sci Res 2010; 5(1): 1-5.

41.     Noland RC, Baker JT, Boudreau SR, Kobe RW, Tanner CJ, Hickner RC, et al. Effect of intense training on plasma leptin in male and female swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer 2001; 33(2): 227-31.

42.     Hickey MS, Calsbeek DJ. Plasma leptin and exercise: recent findings. Sport Med 2001; 31 (8): 583-9.

43.     Hulver MW, Houmard JA. Plasma Leptin and Exercise. Sport Med 2007; 33(7): 473-82.

44.     Devries MC, Hamadeh MJ, Glovera AW, Raha S, Samjoo IA, Tarnopolsky MA. Endurance training without weight loss lowers systemic, but not muscle, oxidative stress with no effect on inflammation in lean and obese women. Free Rad Biol Med 2008; 54(4): 503-11.

45.     Benatti FB, Junior AHL. Leptin and endurance exercise: implications of adiposity and insulin. Revista Brasilaira de Medicine do Esporte 2007; 13: 239e-244e.

46.     Malkova D, McLaughlin R, Manthou E, Wallace AM, Nimmo MA. Effect of Moderate-intensity Exercise Session on Preprandial and Postprandial Responses of Circulating Ghrelin and Appetite. Horm Metab Res. 2008; 40(6): 410-5.

47.     Whybrow S, Hughes DA, Ritz P, Johnstone AM, Horgan GW, King N, et al. The effect of an incremental increase in exercise on appetite, eating behaviour and energy balance in lean men and women feeding ad libitum. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(5):1109-15.

48.     Reinehr T, de Sousa G, Roth CL. Obestatin and ghrelin levels in obese children and adolescents before and after reduction of overweight. : Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008; 68(2):304-10.

49.     Vestergaard ET, Dall R, Lange KH, Kjaer M, Christiansen JS, Jorgensen JO. The ghrelin response to exercise before and after growth hormone administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(1):297-303.

50.     Mager U, Kolehmainen M, Mello V, Schwab U, Laaksonen D, Rauramaa R, et al. Expression of ghrelin gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma ghrelin concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158: 499-510.

51.     De Souza M, Leidy H, O’Donnell E, Lasley B, Williams N. Fasting ghrelin levels in physically active women: relationship with menstrual disturbances and metabolic hormones. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2004; 89: 3536-3542.

52.     Ravussin E, Tschop M, Morales S, Bouchard C, Heiman M. Plasma ghrelin concentration and energy balance: overfeeding and negative energy balance studies in twins. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2001; 86: 4547.

53.     Morpurgo PS, Resnik M, Agosti F, Coppiello V, Sartorio A, Spada A. Gherlin secretion in severely obese subjects before and after a 3-week integrated body mass reduction program. J Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26: 723-7. PMID: 14669825

54.     Saad M, Bernaba B, Hwu C, Jinagouda S, Fahmi S, Kogosov E, et al. Insulin regulates plasma ghrelin concentration. Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 3997-4000.

55.     Broglio F, Benso A, Castiglioni C, Gottero C, Prodam F, Destefanis S, et al. The endocrine response to ghrelin as a function of gender in humans in young and elderly subjects. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2003; 88: 1537-1542.

56.     Sun Y, Asnicar M, Smith RG. Central and peripheral roles of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis. Neuroendocrinol. 2007; 86(3): 215–28.

57.     Gnanapavan S, Kola B, Bustin SA, Morris DG, McGee P, Fairclough P, et al. The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GHS-R, in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(6): 2988-91.

58.     Habib, M.A.B., Parvin, M., Huntington, T.C., Hasan, M.R., 2008. A Review on Culture, Production and Use of Spirulina as Food for Humans and Feeds for Domestic Animals and Fish. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1034. FAO, Rome, pp. 33.