اثر فعالیت راه رفتن با محدودیت جریان خون بر مسیر سیگنالی mTOR عضله اسکلتی مردان تمرین نکرده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزشی ، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی ، دانشکده تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران.

2 استاد گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران.

10.22049/jassp.2020.14012

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر فعالیت راه رفتن با محدودیت جریان خون (BFR) بر فعالیت مسیر سیگنالی mTOR عضله اسکلتی مردان تمرین نکرده بود. پنج مرد سالم تمرین نکرده در دو وهله جداگانه (به فاصله سه هفته) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند: (1) راه‌رفتن با BFR بر روی تردمیل با شدت 40% از توان هوازی بیشینه (VO2max) و (2) فعالیت در شرایط مشابه بدون BFR. نمونه‌های بایوپسی (پهن جانبی) و نمونه‌های خونی (سیاهرگ بازویی) قبل و بعد از فعالیت در فواصل زمانی معین جهت بررسی میزان فسفوریلاسیون پروتئین و تغییرات در هورمون رشد (GH)، فاکتور رشد شبه انسولینی (IGF-1) و لاکتات خون گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که فسفوریلاسیون پروتئینهای mTORو p70S6K در مقایسه با مقادیر قبل از فعالیت در هیچ یک از دو گروه BFR و کنترل تغییر معناداری نداشت (05/0P ˃). IGF-1، بلافاصله بعداز فعالیت در مقایسه با مقادیر قبل از فعالیت افزایش معنادار نشان داد (05/0P ˂). GH بلافاصله بعد از فعالیت در مقایسه با مقادیر قبل از فعالیت و در مقایسه با گروه کنترل افزایش معنادار نشان داد (05/0 ˂ P). لاکتات خون در هیچ یک از گروه ها تغییر معناداری نداشت (05/0 ˃ P). نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که فسفوریلاسیون پروتئینهای mTOR و S6K به همراه فعالیت راه رفتن با محدودیت جریان خون تحریک نمی شود. در نتیجه مسیر سیگنالی mTOR به عنوان یک مکانیسم احتمالی نقش چندانی در افزایش سنتز پروتئین به دنبال فعالیت راه رفتن با BFR ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of walking exercise with blood flow restriction on mTOR signaling pathway in untrained male subjects’ skeletal muscle

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Hallajbashi 1
  • Bahman Mirzaei 2
  • Farhad Rahmaniniya 2
1 PhD Student of Sport Physiology, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to study the acute responses to BFR walking exercise on the mTOR signaling pathway in untrained male subjects. five (n=5) apparently healthy untrained male participants were studied identically on two occasions: (1) BFR aerobic exercise consisting of walking at an exercise intensity of 40% VO2max (2) Identical walking exercise without BFR (Ctrl). Each trial was separated by 3 weeks. Muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis) and blood sample (antecubital vein) were obtained pre- and post-exercise in given time points to determine protein expression and changes in GH and IGF-1. Results showed that mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation levels did not change significantly in both groups (P ˃ 0.05). IGF-1 and GH immediately after exercise increased in BFR group (P˂0.05). Blood lactate did not show any significant change in both groups. We find that the phosphorylation of p70S6K and mTOR did not activate after a bout of walking with blood flow restriction. As result the mTOR signaling pathway is not responsible for stimulating skeletal muscle protein synthesis after BFR walking exercise.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • blood lactate
  • Kaatsu training
  • muscle biopsy
  • muscle hypertrophy

 

1. Abe T, Fujita S, Nakajima T, Sakamaki M, Ozaki H, Ogasawara R, Sugaya M, Kudo M, Kurano M, Yasuda T, Sato Y. Effects of low-intensity cycle training with restricted leg blood flow on thigh muscle volume and VO2max in young men. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2010;9(3):452.

2. Abe T, Kearns CF, Sato Y. Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training. Journal of applied physiology. 2006;100(5):1460-6.

3. Ozaki H, Miyachi M, Nakajima T, Abe T. Effects of 10 weeks walk training with leg blood flow reduction on carotid arterial compliance and muscle size in the elderly adults. Angiology. 2011n;62(1):81-6.

4. Park S, Kim JK, Choi HM, Kim HG, Beekley MD, Nho H. Increase in maximal oxygen uptake following 2-week walk training with blood flow occlusion in athletes. European journal of applied physiology. 2010 1;109(4):591-600.

5. Drummond MJ, Fujita S, Takashi A, Dreyer HC, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Human muscle gene expression following resistance exercise and blood flow restriction. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2008;40(4):691.

6. Fujita S, Abe T, Drummond MJ, Cadenas JG, Dreyer HC, Sato Y, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Blood flow restriction during low-intensity resistance exercise increases S6K1 phosphorylation and muscle protein synthesis. Journal of applied physiology. 2007;103(3):903-10.

7. Fry CS, Glynn EL, Drummond MJ, Timmermann KL, Fujita S, Abe T, Dhanani S, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Blood flow restriction exercise stimulates mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis in older men. J Appl Physiol. 2010; 108: 1199–1209,

8. Gundermann DM, Fry CS, Dickinson JM, Walker DK, Timmerman KL, Drummond MJ, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Reactive hyperemia is not responsible for stimulating muscle protein synthesis following blood flow restriction exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2012; 112: 1520–1528.

9. Abe T, Sakamaki M, Fujita S, Ozaki H, Sugaya M, Sato Y, Nakajima T. Effects of low-intensity walk training with restricted leg blood flow on muscle strength and aerobic capacity in older adults. Journal of geriatric physical therapy. 2010; 33(1): 34-40.

10. Pope ZK, Willardson JM, Schoenfeld BJ. Exercise and blood flow restriction. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2013; 1;27(10):2914-26.

11. Ozaki H, Kakigi R, Kobayashi H, Loenneke JP, Abe T, Naito H. Effects of walking combined with restricted leg blood flow on m TOR and MAPK signalling in young men. Acta Physiologica. 2014;211(1):97-106.

12. Nes BM, Janszky I, Wisløff U, Støylen A, Karlsen T. Age‐predicted maximal heart rate in healthy subjects: The HUNT Fitness Study. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2013;23(6):697-704.

13. Uth N, Sørensen H, Overgaard K, Pedersen P K.  Estimation of VO2max from the ratio between HRmax and HRrest–the heart rate ratio method. European journal of applied physiology. 2004; 91(1): 111-115.

14. Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kauhanen H, Komi PV. Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations in athletes to strength training in two years. Journal of applied physiology. 1988 1;65(6):2406-12.

15. Li X, Monks B, Ge Q, Birnbaum MJ. Akt/PKB regulates hepatic metabolism by directly inhibiting PGC-1α transcription coactivator. Nature. 2007;447(7147):1012.

16. Liu L, Cash TP, Jones RG, Keith B, Thompson CB, Simon MC. Hypoxia-induced energy stress regulates mRNA translation and cell growth. Molecular cell. 2006 17;21(4):521-31.

17. Arsham AM, Howell JJ, Simon MC. A novel hypoxia-inducible factor-independent hypoxic response regulating mammalian target of rapamycin and its targets. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003 Aug 8;278(32):29655-60.

 

18. Wernbom M, Apro W, Paulsen G, Nilsen TS, Blomstrand E, Raastad T. Acute low-load resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction increased protein signalling and number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. European journal of applied physiology. 2013 1;113(12):2953-65.

19. Baar K, Esser K. Phosphorylation of p70S6kcorrelates with increased skeletal muscle mass following resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. 1999;276(1):C120-C7.

20. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports medicine. 2005;35(4):339-61.

21. Loenneke J P, Thrower A D, Balapur A, Barnes J T, Pujol T J. Blood flow–restricted walking does not result in an accumulation of metabolites. Clinical physiology and functional imaging. 2012; 32(1): 80-82.

22. Manini TM, Yarrow JF, Buford TW, Clark BC, Conover CF, Borst SE. Growth hormone responses to acute resistance exercise with vascular restriction in young and old men. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 2012;22(5):167-72.

23. Madarame H, Neya M, Ochi E, Nakazato K, Sato Y, Ishii N. Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008;40(2):258-63.

24. Graham TE. Mechanisms of blood lactate increase during exercise. Physiologist. 1984;27(4):299-303.

25. Stallknecht B, Vissing J, Galbo H. Lactate production and clearance in exercise. Effects of training. A mini‐review. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 1998;8(3):127-31

26. Conceição MS, Chacon-Mikahil MP, Telles GD, Libardi CA, Junior EM, Vechin FC, DE AA, Gáspari AF, Brum PC, Cavaglieri CR, Serag S. Attenuated PGC-1α Isoforms following Endurance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2016; 48(9): 1699-707.

27. Takano H, Morita T, Iida H, Asada KI, Kato M, Uno K, Hirose K, Matsumoto A, Takenaka K, Hirata Y, Eto F. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow. European journal of applied physiology. 2005 1;95(1):65-73.

exercise with vascular restriction in young and old men. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 2012;22(5):167-72.

23. Madarame H, Neya M, Ochi E, Nakazato K, Sato Y, Ishii N. Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008;40(2):258-63.

24. Graham TE. Mechanisms of blood lactate increase during exercise. Physiologist. 1984;27(4):299-303.

25. Stallknecht B, Vissing J, Galbo H. Lactate production and clearance in exercise. Effects of training. A mini‐review. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 1998;8(3):127-31

26. Conceição MS, Chacon-Mikahil MP, Telles GD, Libardi CA, Junior EM, Vechin FC, DE AA, Gáspari AF, Brum PC, Cavaglieri CR, Serag S. Attenuated PGC-1α Isoforms following Endurance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2016; 48(9): 1699-707.

27. Takano H, Morita T, Iida H, Asada KI, Kato M, Uno K, Hirose K, Matsumoto A, Takenaka K, Hirata Y, Eto F. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow. European journal of applied physiology. 2005  1;95(1):65-73.