تأثیر هشت هفته تمرینات CX WORX بر سطح سرمی آفامین و مقاومت به انسولین در زنان دارای اضافه وزن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی Released under (CC BY-NC 4.0) license I Open Access I


1 کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشـگاه الـزهـراء (س)، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهراء (س)، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

4 دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزشی، آموزش‌وپرورش ایلام، ایلام، ایران.



هدف: آفامین یک نشانگر زیستی جدید برای افزایش خطر بیماری متابولیک است و با مقاومت به انسولین مرتبط است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین CX WORX بر سطح سرمی آفامین و مقاومت به انسولین در زنان دارای اضافه‌وزن بود. روش شناسی: در این تحقیق نیمه تجربی، ۲۴ زن دارای اضافه‌وزن به­صورت هدفمند و در دسترس انتخاب و به­طور تصادفی در دو گروه 12 نفره کنترل (سن: ۷/۴ ± ۵۵/۲۹ سال، قد ۸۷/۳ ± ۵/۱۶۲ سانتیمتر؛ وزن ۷۳/۶ ± ۲۵/۷۲ کیلوگرم) و تمرین (سن: ۹۵/۳ ± ۶۵/۲۸ سال، قد ۶۶/۴ ± ۵/۱۶۴ سانتیمتر؛ وزن ۷۱/۵ ± ۸۳/۷۵ کیلوگرم) قرار گرفتند؛ برنامه تمرینات CX WORX شامل گرم‌کردن اولیه، قدرت شکمی 1، قدرت ایستایی 1، قدرت ایستایی 2، قدرت شکمی 2، قدرت شکمی 3 و حرکات کرانچ، پلانک و صفحه وزنه بود که سه جلسه در هفته و به مدت هشت هفته انجام شد. غلظت آفامین سرم با استفاده از کیت و به­روش الایزا و مقاومت به انسولین پس از تعیین غلظت گلوکز و انسولین ناشتایی با استفاده از برآورد مدل هموستاز (HOMA-IR) و طبق فرمول محاسبه گردید. داده­ها با استفاده از آزمون t مستقل و زوجی تجزیه‌وتحلیل شدند. یافته‌ها: پس از دوره مداخله، سطوح BMI (02/0=P)، WHR (004/0=P)، مقاومت به انسولین (0001/0=P) و آفامین (0001/0=P) در گروه تمرین نسبت به گروه کنترل به­طور معنی­داری کمتر بود. همچنین پس از دوره مداخله سطوح BMI  (001/0=P)، WHR (02/0=P)، مقاومت به انسولین (003/0=P) و آفامین (003/0=P) در زنان دارای اضافه‌وزن در گروه تمرین نسبت به پیش­آزمون کاهش یافت (001/0>P). نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج، به نظر می‌رسد که تمرین CX WORX می­تواند به کاهش سطح آفامین و بهبود مقاومت به انسولین در افراد دارای اضافه‌وزن کمک کند.



عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of eight weeks of CX WORX training on serum levels of Afamin and insulin resistance in overweight women

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Golzad 1
  • Parvaneh Nazarali 2
  • rostam alizadeh 3
  • Najmeh Rezaeinezhad 4
1 M.Sc. Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Sports Science, School of Literature and Humanities, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.
4 PhD of Exercise Physiology, Education Office, Ilam, Iran .
چکیده [English]

Aim:   Afamin is a new biomarker of increased the risk of metabolic disease and is associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of CX WORX training on serum levels of Afamin and insulin resistance in overweight women.
Methods:  In this quasi-experimental study, 24 available women (body mass index above 25) were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of control (age: 29.55±4.7 year, height: 162.5± 3.87 cm, weight: 72.25±6.73 kg) and exercise (age: 28.65±3.95 year, height: 164.5± 4.66 cm, weight: 75.83±5.71 kg). The CX WORX training program was performed includes initial warm-up, abdominal strength (1), static strength (1), static strength (2), abdominal strength (2), abdominal strength (3), and exercise (crunch, plank and weight plate), 3 sessions per week for eight weeks. Serum Afamin concentration was measured using ELISA method, and insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA-IR model formula and fasting glucose and insulin values. Data were analyzed using independent and pair÷ed t-test. Results: The results showed that after the intervention, BMI (p=0.02), WHR (p=0.004), insulin resistance (p=0.0001) and Afamin (p=0.0001) in the exercise group were significantly lower compared to the control group. Also, after the intervention, BMI (p=0.001), WHR (p=0.02), insulin resistance (p=0.003) and Afamin (p=0.003) in overweight women in the exercise group decreased compared to the pre-test (P<0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, it seems that CX WORX training can help to reduce afamine levels and improving insulin resistance in overweight people.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Overweight
  • exercise
  • Afamin
  • insulin resistance



This is an open access article distributed under the following Creative Commons license: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)

  1. Polkowska A, Pasierowska IE, Pasławska M, Pawluczuk E, Bossowski A. Assessment of serum concentrations of adropin, afamin, and neudesin in children with type 1 diabetes. BioMed research international. 2019;2019.
  2. Kronenberg F, Kollerits B, Kiechl S, Lamina C, Kedenko L, Meisinger C, et al. Plasma concentrations of afamin are associated with the prevalence and development of metabolic syndrome. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2014;7(6):822-9.
  3. Voegele AF, Jerković L, Wellenzohn B, Eller P, Kronenberg F, Liedl KR, et al. Characterization of the vitamin E-binding properties of human plasma afamin. Biochemistry. 2002;41(49):14532-8.
  4. Kim B-J, Lee Y-S, Lee S-Y, Park S-Y, Dieplinger H, Ryu SH, et al. Afamin secreted from nonresorbing osteoclasts acts as a chemokine for preosteoblasts via the Akt-signaling pathway. Bone. 2012;51(3):431-40.
  5. Kratzer I, Bernhart E, Wintersperger A, Hammer A, Waltl S, Malle E, et al. Afamin is synthesized by cerebrovascular endothelial cells and mediates α‐tocopherol transport across an in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier. Journal of neurochemistry. 2009;108(3):707-18.
  6. Kollerits B, Lamina C, Huth C, Marques-Vidal P, Kiechl S, Seppälä I, et al. Plasma concentrations of afamin are associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis in more than 20,000 individuals. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(10):1386-93.
  7. Klop B, Elte JWF, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients. 2013;5(4):1218-40.
  8. Barrow DR, Abbate LM, Paquette MR, Driban JB, Vincent HK, Newman C, et al. Exercise prescription for weight management in obese adults at risk for osteoarthritis: synthesis from a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2019;20(1):1-9.
  9. Knudsen JG, Biensø RS, Hassing HA, Jakobsen AH, Pilegaard H. Exercise-induced regulation of key factors in substrate choice and gluconeogenesis in mouse liver. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2015;403(1):209-17.
  10. Hussey S, McGee SL, Garnham A, McConell G, Hargreaves M. Exercise increases skeletal muscle GLUT4 gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2012;14(8):768-71.
  11. Kurdiova T, Balaz M, Kovanicova Z, Zemkova E, Kuzma M, Belan V, et al. Serum Afamin a Novel Marker of Increased Hepatic Lipid Content. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2021:1121.
  12. Fontana L, Eagon JC, Trujillo ME, Scherer PE, Klein S. Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Diabetes. 2007;56(4):1010-3.
  13. Vandanmagsar B, Youm Y-H, Ravussin A, Galgani JE, Stadler K, Mynatt RL, et al. The NLRP3 inflammasome instigates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Nature medicine. 2011;17(2):179-88.
  14. Kiani R, Fattahi H. Effects of Eight Weeks of TRX and CXWORX Exercises on Trunk Muscle Strength, Core Endurance, and Dynamic Balance of Female College Students. The Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2021;10(2):186-201.
  15. Tina L, Dallam GM, Foust CP. The relative effect of CXWORXTM versus TabataTM group exercise programs on body mass index, body composition, predicted VO2max and body image in adult exercisers. Int J Phys Educ Fit Sports. 2020;9(3):1-8.
  16. Azizi F, Hadaegh F, Hosseinpanah F, Mirmiran P, Amouzegar A, Abdi H, et al. Metabolic health in the Middle East and north Africa. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology. 2019;7(11):866-79. [In Persian]
  17. Vaisi-Raygani A, Mohammadi M, Jalali R, Ghobadi A, Salari N. The prevalence of obesity in older adults in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC geriatrics. 2019;19(1):1-9. [In Persian]
  18. Xia JY, Lloyd-Jones DM, Khan SS. Association of body mass index with mortality in cardiovascular disease: new insights into the obesity paradox from multiple perspectives. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2019;29(4):220-5.
  19. Csige I, Ujvárosy D, Szabó Z, Lőrincz I, Paragh G, Harangi M, et al. The impact of obesity on the cardiovascular system. Journal of diabetes research. 2018;2018.
  20. Jung TW, Yoo HJ, Choi KM. Implication of hepatokines in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. BBA clinical. 2016;5:108-13.
  21. Stefan N, Häring H-U. The role of hepatokines in metabolism. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2013;9(3):144-52.
  22. Yoo HJ, Choi KM. Hepatokines as a link between obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes & metabolism journal. 2015;39(1):10-5.
  23. Gorbanian B, Saberi Y. Changes in Fetuin-B and RBP4 During A Course of High-Intensity Interval Training in Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences. 2021;23(1):398-404. [In Persian]
  24. Dastah S, Babaei S. Effect of aquatic training on serum Fetuin-A, ANGPTL4 and FGF21 levels in type 2 diabetic obese women. Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2021;8(2):51-60. [In Persian]
  25. Santos ARdOd, Zanuso BdO, Miola VFB, Barbalho SM, Bueno PCS, Flato UAP, et al. Adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines: crosstalk and metabolic repercussions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22(5):2639.
  26. Yorks DM, Frothingham CA, Schuenke MD. Effects of group fitness classes on stress and quality of life of medical students. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 2017;117(11):e17-e25.
  27. Twilleger TL. Choreographed and Non-Choregraphed Exercise Effects on BMI, Bodyfat Percentage, VO2max, and Body Image: Ashford University; 2020.
  28. Munan M, Oliveira CL, Marcotte-Chénard A, Rees JL, Prado CM, Riesco E, et al. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on continuous glucose monitoring outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2020:495.
  29. Seeber B, Morandell E, Lunger F, Wildt L, Dieplinger H. Afamin serum concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2014;12(1):1-7.
  30. Gottschall JS, Mills J, Hastings B. Optimal Core Training for Functional Gains and Peak Performance: CXWORX. Pennstate; 2011.
  31. De Rekeneire N, Peila R, Ding J, Colbert LH, Visser M, Shorr RI, et al. Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and inflammation in older individuals: the health, aging and body composition study. Diabetes care. 2006;29(8):1902-8.
  32. Jalili S, Mohammad Ali Nasasb Firouzjah E. Effect of Six Weeks of CX WORX Training on Core Muscles Endurance, Balance, and Upper Extremity Function in Athletic Girls with Trunk Deficiency. The Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2019;8(4):8-19.