تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی تناوبی با شدت بالا بر سطح پلاسمایی ای-سلکتین و شاخص‌های گلبول‌های سفید

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی Released under (CC BY-NC 4.0) license I Open Access I


1 کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزش، گروه علوم ورزشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزش، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران


هدف: ای سلکتین بازگوکننده تخریب و فعال‌سازی اندوتلیال می‌باشد، همچنین نقش مهمی در فرایندهای التهابی بازی می‌کند. هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی تناوبی با شدت بالا بر سطح پلاسمایی ایی‌سلکتین و شاخص­های گلبول‌های سفید در مردان سالم بود. روش شناسی:  تعداد 23 نفر مرد جوان فعال از طریق فراخوان انتخاب و به روش تصادفی ساده به دو گروه تمرین مقاومتی تناوبی با شدت بالا (11 نفر) و گروه کنترل (12 نفر) تقسیم شدند. گروه تمرین به مدت 8 هفته فعالیت مقاومتی تناوبی با شدت بالا را به صورت 3 جلسه در هفته انجام داد و گروه کنترل زندگی عادی روزمره خود را ادامه داد. از آزمون t همبسته و مستقل در سطح 05/0 ≥P برای تحلیل آماری داده­ها استفاده شد. یافته‌ها: یافته نشان داد که 8 هفته تمرین مقاومتی تناوبی سبب کاهش معنی­دار ایی-سلکتین شد (001/0 =P) اما بر منوسیت­ها، نوتروفیل­ها، آئوزینوفیل­ها و لنفوسیت­ها تأثیر معنی­داری نداشت (05/0<P)، علاوه براین ارتباط معنی‌داری نیز بین تغییرات وزن و ایی-سلکتین مشاهده شد (001/0=p، 67/0-=r). نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج بیانگر این است که هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی با شدت بالا به دلیل وجود ریکاوری مناسب بین ست‌ها و تکرارها منجر تحریک شاخص‌های گلبول‌های سفید نمی‌شود، ولی ایی-سلکیتن به تغییرات فشار ناشی از تمرین حساس‌تر بوده و سازگاری بیشتری با تمرین مقاومتی با شدت بالا نشان می‌دهد.



عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Resistance Training on E-Selectin and White Blood Cell Indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ashkan Motaghian 1
  • Lida Moradi 2
  • Rostam Alizadeh 3
1 Msc of Exercise Physiology, Department of Sport Sciences, Islamic Of Azad University North Tehran ، Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Sports Science, Islamic Of Azad University, North Tehran ،Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Aim: E-selectin reflects endothelial degradation and activation, also plays an important role in inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of high intensity interval resistance training on E-selectin and White blood cell indices in healthy men. Methods: twenty four active healthy men were selected and randomly divided into two groups: training (n=11) and control (n=12). Training group was performing high intensity interval resistance training for 8 weeks while control group continued their normal daily life styles. Dependent and independent t-test was used for statistically analyses of variances. Level of significance was p≤0.05. Results: the results showed that 8 weeks of interval resistance exercise decreased significantly level of E-selectin (p=0.001), but differences between control and training groups in monocytes, lymphocytes, basophiles and eosinophils was not significant (p>0.05), also there was significant relation between body weight and E-selectin changes (r=.67, p= 0.001).  Conclusions: The results indicate that the high intensity interval resistance training did not result in white blood cells' indices excitation because of enough recovery between sets and repetitions, but E-Selectin were sensitive to exercise pressure and load imposed on body by training and showing higher adaptation to high intensity interval resistance training.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • High Intensity Interval Resistance Training
  • E-selectin
  • Monocytes
  • Lymphocytes
1.     Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L. Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation. Physiological reviews. 2000;80(3):1055-81.
2.     Masih J, Verbeke W. Immune System Function and its Relation to Depression: How Exercise can Alter the Immune System-Depression Dynamics. 2018.
3.     Rahimi Mohammad Rahman NC. The Effect of Caffeine Supplement on Myeloperoxidase and Acetylcholinesterase Activity during Acute Resistance Exercise in Athletes. Biannual Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2018;5(1):10-7. In Persian] 
4.     Del Giacco SR, Scorcu M, Argiolas F, Firinu D, Del Giacco GS. Exercise training, lymphocyte subsets and their cytokines production: experience of an Italian professional football team and their impact on allergy. BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
5.     Peake JM, Neubauer O, Walsh NP, Simpson RJ. Recovery of the immune system after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016;122(5):1077-87.
6.     Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop N, et al. Position statement part one: immune function and exercise. 2011.
7.     Beavers KM, Brinkley TE, Nicklas BJ. Effect of exercise training on chronic inflammation. Clinica chimica acta. 2010;411(11-12):785-93.
8.     Kansas GS. Selectins and their ligands: current concepts and controversies. Blood. 1996;88(9):3259-87.
9.     Sakr SA, Ramadan MM, El-Gamal A. The inflammatory response to percutaneous coronary intervention is related to the technique of stenting and not the type of stent. The Egyptian Heart Journal. 2016;68(1):37-43.
10.   Nagarajan DL, Krishnamurthi M, Ponnusamy K, Perumal R. Quantitative Determination of Serum Soluble E-Selectin in Periodontal Health and Disease. Journal of International Medicine and Dentistry. 2018;5(1):01-10.
11.   Huang RB, Eniola-Adefeso O. Shear stress modulation of IL-1β-induced E-selectin expression in human endothelial cells. PloS one. 2012;7(2):e31874.
12.   Lansford KA, Shill DD, Dicks AB, Marshburn MP, Southern WM, Jenkins NT. Effect of acute exercise on circulating angiogenic cell and microparticle populations. Experimental physiology. 2016;101(1):155-67.
13.   Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2010;91(3):535-46.
14.   Pizza FX, Baylies H, Mitchell JB. Adaptation to eccentric exercise: neutrophils and E-selectin during early recovery. Canadian journal of applied physiology. 2001;26(3):245-53.
15.   Duvivier BM, Bolijn JE, Koster A, Schalkwijk CG, Savelberg HH, Schaper NC. Reducing sitting time versus adding exercise: differential effects on biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and metabolic risk. Scientific reports. 2018;8(1):8657.
16.   Smith JK, Dykes R, Douglas JE, Krishnaswamy G, Berk S. Long-term exercise and atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Jama. 1999;281(18):1722-7.
17.   Rall LC, Roubenoff R, Cannon JG, Abad LW, Dinarello CA, Meydani SN. Effects of progressive resistance training on immune response in aging and chronic inflammation. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1996;28(11):1356-65.
18.   McFarlin BK, Flynn MG, Campbell WW, Stewart LK, Timmerman KL. TLR4 is lower in resistance-trained older women and related to inflammatory cytokines. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2004;36(11):1876-83.
19.   Levinger I, Goodman C, Peake J, Garnham A, Hare DL, Jerums G, et al. Inflammation, hepatic enzymes and resistance training in individuals with metabolic risk factors. Diabetic medicine. 2009;26(3):220-7.
20.   Brooks N, Layne JE, Gordon PL, Roubenoff R, Nelson ME, Castaneda-Sceppa C. Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. International journal of medical sciences. 2007;4(1):19.
21.   Ebrahimi Alireza AM, Tahmasebi Voria, Hoseini Rastegar. Comparing the Effect of one-week supplementation of Citrulline-malate, L-arginine and their combination on growth hormone concentration and metabolic responses in male wrestlers. Biannual Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2018;5(1):18-27. In Persian] 
22.   Croymans D, Krell S, Oh C, Katiraie M, Lam C, Harris RA, et al. Effects of resistance training on central blood pressure in obese young men. Journal of human hypertension. 2014;28(3):157.
23.   Gibala MJ. High-intensity interval training: a time-efficient strategy for health promotion? Current sports medicine reports. 2007;6(4):211-3.
24.   Smith-Ryan AE, Melvin MN, Wingfield HL. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men. The Physician and sportsmedicine. 2015;43(2):107-13.
25.   Azali Alamdari Karim AM, Khodaei Orhan. The effect of high intensity interval training on serum adiponectin, insulin resistance and markers of metabolic syndrome in men with metabolic syndrome. Biannual Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport physiology. 2018;5(1):69-76. In Persian] 
26.   Brzycki M. Strength testing—predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 1993;64(1):88-90.
27.   Wood TM, Maddalozzo GF, Harter RA. Accuracy of seven equations for predicting 1-RM performance of apparently healthy, sedentary older adults. Measurement in physical education and exercise science. 2002;6(2):67-94.
28.   Banz WJ, Maher MA, Thompson WG, Bassett DR, Moore W, Ashraf M, et al. Effects of resistance versus aerobic training on coronary artery disease risk factors. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2003;228(4):434-40.
29.   Jackson AS, Pollock ML. Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. British journal of nutrition. 1978;40(3):497-504.
30.   Stock C, Schaller K, Baum M, Liesen H, Weiss M. Catecholamines, lymphocyte subsets, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate production in mononuclear cells and CD4+ cells in response to submaximal resistance exercise. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1995;71(2-3):166-72.
31.   Miles MP, Leach SK, Kraemer WJ, Dohi K, Bush JA, Mastro AM. Leukocyte adhesion molecule expression during intense resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1998;84(5):1604-9.
32.   Nieman D, Henson D, Sampson C, Herring J, Suttles J, Conley M, et al. The acute immune response to exhaustive resistance exercise. International journal of sports medicine. 1995;16(05):322-8.
33.   Mailoo VJ. Psychoneuroimmunology and occupational therapy for inflammatory disorders. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. 2006;13(11):503-10.
34.   Ramel A, Wagner K-H, Elmadfa I. Acute impact of submaximal resistance exercise on immunological and hormonal parameters in young men. Journal of Sports Science. 2003;21(12):1001-8.
35.   Woods J, Ceddia M, Wolters B, Evans J, Lu Q, McAuley E. Effects of 6 months of moderate aerobic exercise training on immune function in the elderly. Mechanisms of ageing and development. 1999;109(1):1-19.
36.   Bobeuf F, Labonté M, Khalil A, Dionne IJ. Effect of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older men and women: a pilot study. Current gerontology and geriatrics research. 2009;2009.
37.   Fatouros I, Chatzinikolaou A, Paltoglou G, Petridou A, Avloniti A, Jamurtas A, et al. Acute resistance exercise results in catecholaminergic rather than hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis stimulation during exercise in young men. Stress. 2010;13(6):461-8.
38.   Ferreira FC, de Medeiros AI, Nicioli C, Nunes JED, Shiguemoto GE, Prestes J, et al. Circuit resistance training in sedentary women: body composition and serum cytokine levels. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism. 2009;35(2):163-71.
39.   El-Kader SMA. Aerobic versus resistance exercise training in modulation of insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Advanced Research. 2011;2(2):179-83.
40.   Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, Fernando F, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2010;20(8):608-17.
41.   Ogawa K, Sanada K, Machida S, Okutsu M, Suzuki K. Resistance exercise training-induced muscle hypertrophy was associated with reduction of inflammatory markers in elderly women. Mediators of inflammation. 2010;2010.
42.   Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A. Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(6):2169-80.
43.   Olson TP, Dengel D, Leon A, Schmitz K. Changes in inflammatory biomarkers following one-year of moderate resistance training in overweight women. International journal of obesity. 2007;31(6):996.
44.   Calle MC, Fernandez ML. Effects of resistance training on the inflammatory response. Nutrition research and practice. 2010;4(4):259-69.