عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between risk-taking and aggression in bodybuilders. This was a correlational, causal-comparative study. The population of this study included all bodybuilders of fitness clubs in Urmia city among which 50 male and 50 female with at least one year and maximum five years history of regular exercise were selected in a convenient manner. Bass and Perry aggression questionnaire and Zuckerman mixed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and independent t-test. Results showed that there was significant positive correlation between aggression and risk-taking (p=0.015). Independenat t-test analysis showed a significant difference between men and women in risk-taking (p < 0.01) and aggression (p < 0.05); namely the average of risk-taking and aggression was significantly higher in men than women. Given the fact that taking risk to achieve ambitious goals is one of the most valuable features among communities,it should be taken in moderation. People should not take unbearable risks because high risks jeopardizes mental health.
17. Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: a meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, (8): 291–332
18. Azimi, M. (1376). The causes of aggression in Qazvin city school students, with emphasis on the use of problem-solving methods in the treatment of this disorder. Master's thesis in General Psychology. Tehran University.
19. Craig, A., Anderson and Brad J., Bushman. (2002). Human aggression. Annu. Rev. Psychol, 53:27–51.
20. Critchfield, KL., Levy, KN., Clarkin, JF. (2004). The relationship between impulsivity, aggression, and impulsive-aggression in borderline personality disorder: an empirical analysis of self-report measures. Journal of Personality Disorders, (6): 555–70.
21. Dominguez, GB., Balsam, P. (2011). The Relationship between Risk-Taking. Substance Abuse and Aggression in Schizophrenia. Psychology (Barnard College). http://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:10599.
22. Laber, MP., (2002). Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal. Journal of Adolescent Health, (4): 233-242
23. Donovan, Rj., Egger, G., Kapernick, V., Mendoza, ja. (2003). Conceptual framework for achieving performance enhancing drug compliance in sport. Sport Medicine, (4): 269-284.
24. Haque, Md., Mazharul, Ch., Hoong, Ch., & Lim., Beng, Ch. (2010). Effects of impulsive sensation seeking, aggression and risk-taking behavior on the vulnerability of motorcyclists. Asian Transport Studies, 1(2): 165-180.
25. Nilsson, S., Baigi, A., Marklund, B., Fridlund, B. (2001). The prevalence of androgenic-anabolic steroids by adolescent in country of Sweden. European Journal of Public Health. (2): 195-197.
26. Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2003). Synopsis of Psychiatry. Behavioral Sciences. Clinical Psychiatry. Ninth Edition. Lippincott. Willi. Williams & Wilkins.
27. Swaim, RC., Henry, KL., Baez, NE. (2004). Risk-taking, attitudes toward aggression. and aggressive behavior among rural middle school youth. (2): 157-70.
28. Thel well, R.C., and Greenles, L.A. (2003). Developing competitve endurance performance using mental skills training. The sport psychology. (17), Pp: 318-377.
29. Wills, T.A., Vaccaro, D., & Mcnamara, G. (1994). Novelity seeking, risk taking and related constructs as predictors of adolescent substance use. Journal of Substance Abuse. (6): 1-20.
30. Waldeck, T.L., Miller, L.S. (1997). Gender and impulsivity differences inlicit substance use. Journal of substance abuse, 9: 261.
31. Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D.M (1991). Five (or three) robust questionnaire scale factor of personality without culture. Personality and individual differences, 12: 929-941.